The transitions of film throughout history

MSc. Damjana Patcheva

Cinematheque of North Macedonia- Filmologist

Bio: Damjana Patcheva is a senior film Archivist at the Department for Research, publishing, International Relations, and Screenings at NI Cinematheque of North Macedonia. She has a master’s degree in Comparative Literature and has extensive work with film festivals, exhibitions, events, and projects about cultural heritage and audience development. In 2016 she attended the FIAF Film Restoration Summer School and was part of the Innovation and Audience Development Lab for exhibitors organized by Europa Cinemas in Seville (2021) and Bologna (2022). From 2020 in Cinematheque of North Macedonia she is the project coordinator of SEASON OF CLASSIC FILMS in North Macedonia, a project aimed at attracting younger audiences to share cinematic cultural heritage. She had worked on many projects of analog and digital restoration of Macedonian films, as well as promoting heritage films aimed at diversification of cinema audience.

Title: The transitions of film throughout history Abstract Starting to work with film materials implies a prior understanding of their nature, their historical development and all the changes that the film material has experienced. These changes can be the reasons for successful or unsuccessful completion of a digitization work. In the beginning, before proceeding to the preparation of the materials, we need to distinguish the different carriers and formats of film content, which could be found in a non-specialized film archive (library, university, state institution, etc.). As the most significant representative of the carrier of an audiovisual content, historically and ontologically, is the film stock. Its historical development implies a number of changes that are significant and should be followed when determining the way of their protection and digitization. In addition to the emulsion, the carrier on which it is applied plays an important role for the film image. History knows about numerous attempts for more functional carriers, a process that lasted until the end of the eighties of the last century, until the appearance of polyester. In the beginning, metal plates were used, but they were soon replaced by glass, which is kept for a long time, but only for photographs, while the film, due to the need for easier manipulation and flexibility, will be placed on a movable carrier from the beginning known as a film stock.